SEOToolsCentre is a reliable name in the SEO services provider due to its high-quality SEO Tools. Paraphrase tool is our best product which works as a human writer. If you are got tired to write articles or to hire professional writers then you are at right place. It works as your classmate to create unique research papers, assignments and thesis for the educational purpose.

A few years ago we were wondering - is there a good paraphrasing website with an automatic paraphrasing tool online? We searched the Internet for a good sentence rephraser, and altought we found many, none of it could rephrase paragraphs correctly. Decision was made - create the best English paraphrasing tool to rewrite my or your text. Only our "paraphrase maker" has a built-in reword generator which will help rephrase any text automatically and accordingly. Paraphrase Online is free tool that can be used for automatic text processing: our paraphrasing tool (or article rewriter, article spinner, text rewriter etc.) is an online tool that automaticaly rewrites any provided content into an unique one by changing and mixing specific words and phrases with suitable synonyms. Our article rewriter is an advanced automated paraphrasing tool that allows instant online paraphrasing of any article into a unique content. Rewriting of content can help you greatly in avoiding the penalties you may suffer due to plagiarism. This free paraphrase tool does not require any registration or sign up, all you need is to enter any human readable written content, and you will get human readable rewritten content in the results. The primary goal of this software is to help compose fresh content completely for free and in no time. Mastering an online article rewriter tool can prove quite tricky. When paraphrasing or rewriting any text or paragraph, many writers and students tend to get hold of the technology that enables them to rewriter any written piece of content into a fresh piece, yet keeping the original meaning of the text same. This approach is usually used to simplify a piece of writing, minimize the use of quotes or target an alternative audience. When article spinner tool is used correctly, paraphrasing turns out to be much more concise than the original text, covering all the main points while preventing the risk of plagiarism. Whether you are a student or writer, you can use this free article rewriter online to rewrite any text to save time and get a different version. If your life revolves around writing, perhaps this is what you do for a living then this free article spinner tool is the answer to all your problems. It is the best academic and most SEO friendly paraphrasing tool that enables you to get a rewritten article with great flexibility. This competent instant article spinner helps you make a better attractive and comprehensive article in seconds. You can use tool to get rid of plagiarism or speed up your SEO performance. This is the definitive and complete rephrasing tool for rewrite and reword any of your sentences!
Use Article Rewriter to rewrite or paraphrase articles, full-length essays, or to find different and better ways to express simple words, phrases, or sentences. Whether you wish to reproduce textual content for a website, business document, email, tweet, or term paper, article rewriter will do the trick. Facilitate essay writing, expand your blogs and enhance your website’s online visibility with quality content now.
WordAI is probably the most famous content spinning service. Many people swear by it and the quality of the content it produces and it is not empty talk. But let’s see how it will spin my short story. WordAI has two modes of spinning – “Standard” and “Turing”, with the latter being the one that produces better results. I will spin the text with both of them.
If you consider that you can spin articles with Search Engine Optimization (SEO) in mind it definitely makes Spin Rewriter 9.0 worth the money.  Your articles will now be able to rank in Google for your keywords you want to rank for.  The more content you can produce and put on your website the quicker Google will rank you.  This allows you to quickly create scalable evergreen content that will rank for years.
2. Show Off Your Singularity - In my previous posts, I have discussed the value of being distinct from others in your business. You must promote your singularity. What's it about YOU that will bring your audience for you? Among the greatest mistakes you can make is attempting to duplicate someone in your business. Although, they may become successful, you're not giving your target audience reasons to pick your services over theirs. That is why it is essential to reveal your audience why you're distinct, and be consistent with your singularity.
Unlike other spinners, WordAi fully understands what each word content means. It doesn’t view sentences as just a list of words, it views them as real things that interact with each other. This human like understanding allows WordAI to automatically rewrite entire sentences from scratch. This high level of rewriting ensures that Google and Copyscape can’t detect your content while still remaining human readable!
SpinnerChief is designed to generate unique articles to provide content for websites and increase site traffic. It does this by spinning one article into multiple versions of itself, replacing certain words, phrases, and sentences with alternate versions of themselves. SpinnerChief can identify parts of speech, correct grammar errors, and use intelligent auto-replace methods until the article is both human-readable and passes Copyscape (a plagiarism checker). The SpinnerChief API allows developers to access SpinnerChief's functions from within other programs and can spin articles in 27 different languages.
Imo it is not possible for google to detect properly spun content, it is not worth computing power it requires. They can do this using ngrams for example, but it is uses a lot of queries. And for example article spinner I coded beats this algo, so google cant detect that the content is spun. Manual spinning is also good but it takes more than 30 minutes per article.
Owner is a scammer who has been banned from major SEO forums for fraudulent and deceptive practices. You might be willing to look past the fact that the owner of this product creates fake accounts to post fake reviews and lies about the product if the product itself was actually good, but unfortunately Spinner Chief itself is filled with half baked buggy features (which are advertised as working completely) and can't go more than 10 minutes without crashing. All in all it is a complete waste of money and time.
Millions of people who also have the internet at their fingertips are wondering exactly the same thing as you right now: How can I make money online? How can I get search engine exposure for my website (or blog)? What will give me a leg up on the competition? Thankfully you have already arrived at the answer to all these questions. Article Rewriter Tool is available for free to make your online business as successful as possible, with minimal effort on your part.

We all know that content is king on the internet. The internet itself is made from many different kinds of content. Content is also the key to making money online! So it will come as no surprise that many people have been trying to find shortcuts to making as much content as possible in the least time possible. Over the years I have seen many different kinds of software being released that claim to be able to make the process of creating content easy. But there was always a problem…


For a blogger who has to publish multiple blogs on daily basis, it is tough for them to write unique content, especially when writing on same topics. In that case, spin bot tool could be used to avoid self-plagiarism and to maintain the quality on blog posts. As spinbot change synonym automatically but you can pick the most relevant synonym using out tool.

For this purpose, humans have created numerous rewriting tools to save time and use all words available in the English dictionary. Rewriting tools use millions of synonyms made available to them through artificial intelligence and instructions given by the human mind. If you hire the services of a content writer to rewrite/create content for you, they will charge you a lot. Big organizations can afford this but small startups and students can never afford the services of professional writers.    


"I have been using Spinner Chief for about 2 months now and find it to be the best spinner that I have used. Of the many unique features Spinner Chief has, but I think the Super Replace feature is my favorite and is totally unique to Spinner Chief. I have used it exclusively to product content for my site, BuyMazuGold.com, and has saved me a lot of time and effort. I highly recommend this product and look forward to the new updates."
Only standard WordAI spinner showed 12% match for me in Copyscape which is very good I think. Also I will add that for SPAM links in general you don’t need any quality at all. if Google crawler can’t find connection with other spinned articles – goal achieved. Sorry, but I don’t see that with expensive spinners as Copyspace shows that in plain sight.
Welcome to the JVNP 2.0 Update featuring a primary JV invite courtesy of fellow JVNP 2.0 Partner Aaron Sustar (Spin Rewriter 9.0 launch affiliate program JV invite), Buzz Builders (Tradeology – Forex Growth Code Evergreen launch, Matt Clark + Jason Katzenback – Amazing Selling Machine 10 (ASMX) pre-launch), and More … in Today’s get behind Spin Rewriter #9 and earn lifetime recurring commission edition.

Although the idea of quickly being able to create content might sound fantastic, it certainly has its disadvantages. Firstly, Google don’t like badly written content. In the past article spinners have been renown for creating poor quality content. Badly written articles are something that Google hates and you won’t make any human friends with it either.
By now, most people in the SEO industry are more than familiar with the various animal named updates that have made it nearly impossible to rank without high-quality content. One of the most famous ones is Google Panda, which directly targets on-site content quality and severely penalizes sites that have spelling and stylistic errors or were not edited well.
4. Tier 2 content (content that is keyword rich and relevant to your niche. Doesn’t have to be all that readable, it just has to be indexable by a search engine.)– Here put same options as with the Tier 1 content situation with the only difference that you set the 1st input to “Regular.” It is important that lower tiers have a lower quality of content compared to upper tiers.
Any article rewriter or paraphrasing tool basically scans through the content you provide it in order to look for all the words that it can replace with suitable synonyms or substitutes. Every replaced word will appear bold and highlighted in a colorful text. Clicking on the word will give you details such as original word or other suggestions, you also have an option to add your own word.  By clicking on the original word, you can go back to original.
I personally love this one. It creates amazing content and is extremely affordable. We use a combination of WordAI and Spin Rewriter for our SEO projects, because these two are just an amazing combination. I think Spin Rewriter beats the “Standard Spinner” of WordAI in terms of quality and human readability, but loses to its “Turing Spinner”. So what we do is use the “Turing Spinner” for Tier 1 projects and then Spin Rewriter for the lower tiers. Sometimes we might switch them up, but it really depends a lot on the situation.
There are many people who still prefer rewriting their articles by hand. They are used to write sentence after sentence and rephrase their content to ensure the quality of writing. Although it is the safest approach but it can take hours or days to complete a task. On the other hand, there also exist people who are either too lazy to rewrite their content or they understand the importance of time and hence, they look for an article spinner tool or paraphrasing tool.
Sometimes the tools called paraphrasing tool, why it is so called? As the tool use the logic of changing words according to its synonyms to make an article unique and meaningful. If we expand the main logic behind the tool use the word synonyms of targeted article that you will rewrite or spin, giving you the options to replace the word from its dictionary suggested by the boot as well as option to write your own, it’s simple but it’s superb.
Some writers browse for batches of cheap private ticket rights articles and spinning them before submitting them. These PLR articles might not be the best quality but anything can be much better upon by the spinner. These PLR content are utilised anticipated to the actuality that though the level of quality is average even, they possess helped catch the attention of in website traffic still.
Using Spinbot you can instantly spin (or rewrite) a chunk of textual content up to 10,000 characters in length (or about 1000 words), which is much longer than an average website or freely-distributed article. With a single click you can turn your old blog post or website article into a completely new one, thereby doubling the payoff you get in return for the time and energy you have already invested into creating quality website content. Spinbot is lightning fast as well as free, so there is potentially no limit to the amount of free web content that you can create using this tool.
Only standard WordAI spinner showed 12% match for me in Copyscape which is very good I think. Also I will add that for SPAM links in general you don’t need any quality at all. if Google crawler can’t find connection with other spinned articles – goal achieved. Sorry, but I don’t see that with expensive spinners as Copyspace shows that in plain sight.
After rewriting and keeping the dynamics of the writing same, our tool passes it through a plagiarism checker. This ensures that the legal standard of plagiarism is maintained after rewriting the article. After all this process, a final rewritten form is presented to you. All this process may require some time depending upon the nature and length of the article to be rewritten.
Aaron Sustar is a well-known name in the online marketing field. Back in 2007  he started his own successful online business and hasn’t looked back since.   He describes himself as an entrepreneur, programmer and in love with life, he considers himself more of a “science” guy than a “marketing” guy.  Aaron Sustar passionately works on improving Spin Rewriter, a software he developed.
Article Rewriter is the best and free SEO tool that allows you to rewrite the article with flexibility. The competent tool, which allows you to post articles or blogs periodically, makes posts attractive and publishes the same in simple words. Rewrite the full content in few seconds. With the help of this tool, you can get rid of plagiarism. It also helps to improves your SEO performance faster than the before..
Hello and welcome to another review from the Make Money Online Zone. Today we are looking at something that I didn’t really expect to see ever again. But here we are looking at another version of an article spinner that has been around for quite some time. Spin Rewriter from www.spinrewriter.com has just announced version 9.0 of its article creation software. Spin Rewriter 9.0 boasts lots of features that claim to make content creation easy. But is this software all its cracked up to be or should you avoid this one like the plague?
Rewriting is far more complicated than many would like it to be. Do you struggle with your rewriting skills and wish to excel at paraphrasing? More than a desire it’s a necessity to most people. It’s an essential skill that many people need to get through their schools, colleges, universities, and jobs, now and then. Many people have to do it quite often which makes it a dull and a difficult task to finish. Moreover, searching for the suitable synonyms or phrases and then rearranging all the sentences is not always a fascinating job. In a situation like that one can’t help but wonder what if there’s a paraphrasing tool that could do all the rewriting for them in the blink of an eye. Fortunately, it is no longer just a dream. Article rewriter, article spinner, paraphrasing tool or whatever you may call it; it is now a reality. An instant article spinner or an instant paraphrasing tool, as the name suggests, can paraphrase your article promptly.
This is definitely one of the better options among the spinners that we have available right now, with great customer support – which I had a pleasure of dealing with, they were helpful and fast to respond. Actually the whole team behind this product is very professional, I know a couple of them and dealt with them in the past, they an alright bunch.

People don’t know that content on their website truly optimizes their search . It’s important because you will be penalized by search engines to avoid using duplicate content. If you really want your site this practice is avoided at all times. Spin Rewriter ensures that your posts that are spun pass Copyscape to give reassurance to you that your content is unique. Spin Rewriter 9.0 allows you to rewrite content using SEO techniques so you can rank for certain keywords. You will be attracting visitors to your site organically when you rank for key words. Having a traffic flow to your blogs, you’ll find making bank simpler than ever. Whether you use AdWords, sell Amazon products, or run affiliate offers, there is a online income now within your grasp.


People, I’m pretty sure over half of the articles you read nowadays come out from a spinner such as this one, and you can’t even tell the difference… believe me I know – I publish a lot of these articles myself, using Spin Rewriter, and they are very good and believable, you wouldn’t know the difference between one of them and an article written by a human.
You are a blogger or content writer or SEO specialist, definitely looking for unique artistic content that focus your product or services as online identity. You know most of the Search engine looks unique content. To be in good state of the web world, you must have to ensure exorcism data in your site or blog, that attract your visitor to visit you regularly also it present acceptance to the search engine. As an online marketer you need content regular basis, but to write or create a brand new article concept and its composition is not an easy task!
Spinrewriter has a decent Google pagerank and bad results in terms of Yandex topical citation index. We found that Spinrewriter.com is moderately ‘socialized’ in respect to Facebook shares (20.2K) and Google+ shares (41). According to MyWot, Siteadvisor and Google safe browsing analytics, Spinrewriter.com is quite a safe domain with mostly positive visitor reviews.

Only standard WordAI spinner showed 12% match for me in Copyscape which is very good I think. Also I will add that for SPAM links in general you don’t need any quality at all. if Google crawler can’t find connection with other spinned articles – goal achieved. Sorry, but I don’t see that with expensive spinners as Copyspace shows that in plain sight. 

So you are still doing it? I have stopped using spin content after panda update way couple of years ago. As content become king and the user expereince the key to earn website authority, I started focusing on writing more meaningful and engaging content. I never cam across any spinner that time which makes total sense after spinning. The spin content either looked very bad or it needed manual review. I forgot the name of the spinner tool as well. Looking forward for replied from more experts here as it could be an eye opener for me if spinning still works.
The content above is 98% unique according to Spin Rewriter and I really like it. It actually seems better than the WordAI spin – only the “Standard” one however, it is no match for the “Turing”. One thing that the spinner failed to recognize is the “green eyes” phrase where it replaced it with “environment-friendly”. Yea, I laughed too. Anyway, here is the spintax for those interested in more testing:
Once upon a time there lived a boy. He had blue eyes with blond hair as yellow as gold. The young boy was small and fragile, but his mind was swift like the wind. He could calculate the outcome of any situation in the blink of an eye. But that was not his biggest talent. No. His biggest talent was perception. The young boy could understand and perceive anything faster than anyone he had ever met. Then, he fell in love with a beautiful princess. She had magnetic green eyes and light brown hair. He loved her very much and she loved him back even more. There was only one problem – the young boy was the son of a blacksmith. The princess’s father would never allow her to marry a simple son of a blacksmith. But their love was too strong. In one fell swoop, the young boy raised an army of undead and started a rebellion to overthrow the evil king who did not believe in true love. After months of fighting against the armies of his beloved’s father, the young boy was assassinated and the war was over. No songs were sang.
PrepostSEO article re-writer is developed with advance techniques so that it can help users in an effective way. This tool scans through all the words and change them with their synonym. To use this word spinner please paste copied content in the input box and click on the rewrite button. After that our tool will process whole text and then spin it. In the Step 3 you can choose different words from the suggestions or you can use your own word. After that click on the next button to get re-written content.
Not only are you getting access to Spin Rewriter 9.0 for the best price ever offered, but also You’re investing entirely without risk. Spin Rewriter 9.0 include a 30-day Money Back Guarantee Policy. When you choose Spin Rewriter 9.0, your satisfaction is guaranteed. If you are not completely satisfied with it for any reason within the first 30 days, you’re entitled to a full refund – no question asked. You’ve got nothing to lose! What Are You Waiting for ? Try It today and get The Following Bonus Now !
WordAI is probably the most famous content spinning service. Many people swear by it and the quality of the content it produces and it is not empty talk. But let’s see how it will spin my short story. WordAI has two modes of spinning – “Standard” and “Turing”, with the latter being the one that produces better results. I will spin the text with both of them.

In simple terms, if we define the term spinning, then it is all known as about rewriting of the paragraph or even the whole of the paper straight in your own words. Unlike into the concept of the summarizing, you will be keeping every single thing as rough and in the same length as the original one. You can easily perform this task as by means of going through the original and hence changing every other word for the purpose of the synonym by means of using the thesaurus. You should be finding yourself as all the time repeating on with the portions of the original document.


Yea mate, WordAI really is overpriced IMO too, which is why I didn’t rank it higher in the cost-effectiveness rankings. Now, it did change more than a few words, but I see how you would think it’s less than 80% unique. TBS is also great, but only in terms of functionality and the easy interface which allows manual spinning to be done quite fast. As for their thesaurus, I think they have a lot to improve.
There are many people who still prefer rewriting their articles by hand. They are used to write sentence after sentence and rephrase their content to ensure the quality of writing. Although it is the safest approach but it can take hours or days to complete a task. On the other hand, there also exist people who are either too lazy to rewrite their content or they understand the importance of time and hence, they look for an article spinner tool or paraphrasing tool.
Not sure about version 1, but I'm testing version 2 right now and I have to say it's the best auto spinner I've seen bar none. The content is actually extremely readable and probably better than the manual spins a lot of people do out there. However, some of the content doesn't pass copyscape so make sure you play around with the settings. Minor edits should do the trick. I'm on the trial now but seriously thinking of keeping the Turing plan for my Tier 1 content.
The answer is very straightforward because it is the simplest yet most efficient online paraphrasing tool. You will know what we are talking about once you will start using this free article spinner. You have to use the Article Rewriter Tool to know what exactly we are talking about. This handy text spinner is useful for writers, bloggers, and webmasters. Accuracy, reliability, and swiftness are what makes it the best article rewriter. Moreover, it is completely free, and we intend to always keep it like that.

Words have the uncanny ability to create magic. Often a group of words is rewritten to achieve various purposes. Either if you are a student, blogger, author or writing in any capacity; you need to play with your words to create magic for the reader. Rewriting is a very useful tool for a lot of people. The best way to rewrite something is to do it yourself and with your own knowledge. Often this is restricted by lack of time and vocabulary. It takes up to hours, days or even weeks to rewrite something depending upon the length of it. No matter how good you are in the language, there comes a point where your knowledge starts to drain out.
"One thing important in my business as seo provider is to generate unique content for my clients. I used to hire many writers to produce many articles manually costing me lots of time and money. Good thing that I learned about this great piece of software, now I can have many unique articles as I want with just a few clicks.The Spinnerchief team rocks! Highly recommended product"
To rank your website in search engines you have to post content at your website on daily basis. If you have more than 2 websites then it is almost impossible to write unique content on all those websites. Because for proper blogging you have to keep an eye on word count of your blog post. To do this task webmasters use article spinning tools so that they can post articles to their domains daily. Paraphrasing Tool is also used by students when they have less time to submit their assignment; they just copy content from the internet, rewrite it, remove grammar mistakes and submit it. According to the webmasters, we have the best sentence rewriter tool available online.
Once upon a time there lived a boy. His head was swift such as the wind, although the young boy was little and fragile. He could calculate the results of any problem in the blink of an eye. But that wasn’t his largest talent. No. His biggest talent was perception. The young lad could comprehend and perceive anything faster than anyone he had ever met. Afterward, he fell in love with a beautiful princess. She had magnetic green eyes and light brown hair. He loved her very much and she adored him back even more. There was just one issue – the young boy was the son of a blacksmith. The princess’s father would never allow her to wed a simple son of a blacksmith. However, their love was too powerful. In one fell swoop, the young boy raised an army of undead and began a rebellion to overthrow the evil king who failed to believe in genuine love. After months of fighting against the armies of his love’s dad, the young lad was assassinated as well as the war was over. No songs were sang.
Notice: Because of the 3 days free trial, we must use Paypal's subscription button even for a one-time price. Unfortunately Paypal has a bug that only allows you to set max 5 years for the subscription. So when you see Paypal's notice that your one-time fee is actually a subscription that will be renewed in 5 years, in fact it is not true, it is a one-time forever payment, NOT renewable after 5 years.
Are you struggling to have a proper understanding of an article rewriter or text spinner tool? Don’t worry, we can help you. It is a simple tool that can work online or offline depending on its functionality. An article rewriter or article spinner or paraphrasing tool is a simple yet efficient tool that understands the text you enter and then rewrite it for you. Article rewriter allows you to have your article rewritten without having to go through any trouble. Any good and quality article spinner tool will not just save your time but saves you from the pain of sitting in front of your computer screen for hours and hours to create a unique and plagiarism free content. Article spinner or article rewriter is just a tool that aids you in doing your work more efficiently. The real authority over your work remains with you, you can read the newly created article yourself and make the mandatory changes. Sometimes the article created by an article rewriter doesn’t make sense or content could be plagiarized, therefore we highly recommend you to proofread the article before using it.

Not so long ago there lived a boy. He blue eyes with blond hair as yellow as gold. The young boy was smaller than average fragile, but his mind was swift much like the wind. He could calculate the outcome from a situation within the blink of the eye. But that was not his biggest talent. No. His biggest talent was perception. The son could understand and perceive anything quicker than anyone he’d ever met. Then, he fell crazy about a lovely princess. She’d magnetic green eyes and light brown hair. He loved her quite definitely and then she loved him back even more. There were only 1 problem – the young lad was the son of your blacksmith. The princess’s father would never allow her to marry an easy son of a blacksmith. On the other hand love was too strong. In a single fell swoop, the young boy raised an army of undead and commenced a rebellion to overthrow the evil king who didn’t trust soul mates. After months of struggling with the armies of his beloved’s father, the young lad was assassinated as well as the war was over. No songs were sang.
Spin Rewriter 9.0 allows their users to get hundreds of articles of similar high quality in a short amount of time. They’ve updated the ENL Semantic Spinning engine to include even more synonyms and sentence structure variations.  Their article spinning software is of the best in the market and they’ve kept their prices affordable. Spin Rewriter is being used by top website professionals. High profile clients have said; the Rewriter tool is used as a great savings model for any online business with a marketing budget.
I enjoy this program! It saves me lots of money and time in getting write-ups for backlinks. As I claimed I am running an experiment on an internet site using only articles that are spun from it and am starting to see some positions. I believe as the website continues to grow it will continue to improve positions as well as more website traffic. Just time will certainly inform.
Aaron has just closed out a very profitable 5-figure promo for one of my products, and I've had the pleasure of also promoting him. Now what I'll say about Aaron is, he puts 110% in absolutely everything that he does. If you have an opportunity to jump on one of his launches or promote one of his products or just work with him, I highly recommend that you do so.
Seriously, if you have a blog or a collection of web 2.0 properties, you want to build some authpority to your additional tier 2 and 3 sites, you want backilinks and endless content for any purpose, then this tool is for you. No matter what business you are in, you are going to need content of some degree and spin rewriter 9 is the perfect solution with out any doubt.

You are a blogger or content writer or SEO specialist, definitely looking for unique artistic content that focus your product or services as online identity. You know most of the Search engine looks unique content. To be in good state of the web world, you must have to ensure exorcism data in your site or blog, that attract your visitor to visit you regularly also it present acceptance to the search engine. As an online marketer you need content regular basis, but to write or create a brand new article concept and its composition is not an easy task!

I've ranked websites in the past with spun content, and now they are still on #1 position of google. First year (2014) google found me because my spun was really bad, many paragraphs were just copied and my position drop from #2 to around #20 after a panda update. Later I cleaned all my text with better spun (I didn't buy any article!), my ranking went up again, and with more backlinks I reached #1 and it is still there
Welcome to the JVNP 2.0 Update featuring a primary JV invite courtesy of fellow JVNP 2.0 Partner Aaron Sustar (Spin Rewriter 9.0 launch affiliate program JV invite), Buzz Builders (Tradeology – Forex Growth Code Evergreen launch, Matt Clark + Jason Katzenback – Amazing Selling Machine 10 (ASMX) pre-launch), and More … in Today’s get behind Spin Rewriter #9 and earn lifetime recurring commission edition.
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